Both Lusitania and Mauretania were fitted with revolutionary new turbine engines that enabled them to maintain a service speed of 25 knots (46 km/h; 29 mph). The Royal Navy had blockaded Germany at the start of World War I. When RMS Lusitania left New York for Britain on 1 May 1915, German submarine warfare was intensifying in the Atlantic. Germany had declared the seas around the United Kingdom a war zone, and the German embassy in the United States had placed a newspaper advertisement warning people of the dangers of sailing on Lusitania.
On the afternoon of 7 May, a German U-boat torpedoed Lusitania, 11 mi (18 km) off the southern coast of Ireland and inside the declared war zone. A second, unexplained, internal explosion sent her to the seabed in 18 minutes, with the deaths of 1,198 passengers and crew. It was no longer possible for submarines to give warning due to the British introduction of Q-ships in 1915 with concealed deck guns.
Lusitania had been fitted with 6-inch gun mounts in 1913, although she was unarmed at the time of her sinking. The Germans justified treating Lusitania as a naval vessel because she was carrying hundreds of tons of war munitions, therefore making her a legitimate military target, and argued that British merchant ships had violated the Cruiser Rules from the very beginning of the war. . The sinking caused a storm of protest in the United States because 128 American citizens were among the dead.The sinking helped shift public opinion in the United States against Germany, and was a factor in the United States' declaration of war nearly two years later. In 1982, the head of the British Foreign Office's North America department admitted that there is a large amount of ammunition in the wreck, some of which is highly dangerous and poses a safety risk to salvage teams. Lusitania, shortly before her launch. Lusitania and Mauretania were commissioned by Cunard, responding to increasing competition from rival transatlantic passenger companies, particularly the German Norddeutscher Lloyd (NDL) and Hamburg America Line (HAPAG).
They had larger, faster, more modern, more luxurious ships than Cunard and were better placed, starting from German ports, to capture the lucrative trade in emigrants leaving Europe for North America. NDL soon wrested the prize back in 1903 with the new Kaiser Wilhelm II and Kronprinz Wilhelm. Cunard saw their passenger numbers affected as a result of the so-called "Kaiser-class ocean liners". And a controlling interest in the British passenger White Star Line and folded them into IMM.
In 1902, IMM, NDL, and HAPAG entered into a "Community of Interest" to fix prices and divide among them the transatlantic trade. The partners also acquired a 51% stake in the Dutch Holland America Line. Cunard chairman Lord Inverclyde thus approached the British government for assistance. In return the ships would be built to Admiralty specifications so that they could be used as auxiliary cruisers in wartime. Cunard established a committee to decide upon the design for the new ships, of which James Bain, Cunard's Marine Superintendent was the chairman.
Other members included Rear Admiral H. Oram, who had been involved in designs for turbine powered ships for the navy, and Charles Parsons, whose company Parsons Marine was now producing revolutionary turbine engines.Parsons maintained that he could design engines capable of maintaining a speed of 25 knots (46 km/h; 29 mph), which would require 68,000 shaft horsepower (51,000 kW). The largest turbine sets built thus far had been of 23,000 shp (17,000 kW) for the Dreadnought-class battleships, and 41,000 shp (31,000 kW) for Invincible-class battlecruisers, which meant the engines would be of a new, untested design. Turbines offered the advantages of generating less vibration than the reciprocating engines and greater reliability in operation at high speeds, combined with lower fuel consumption. It was agreed that a trial would be made by fitting turbines to Carmania, which was already under construction. A fourth funnel was implemented into the design in 1904 as it was necessary to vent the exhaust from additional boilers fitted after steam turbines had been settled on as the power plant. The original plan called for three propellers, but this was altered to four because it was felt the necessary power could not be transmitted through just three.
Four turbines would drive four separate propellers, with additional reversing turbines to drive the two inboard shafts only. To improve efficiency, the two inboard propellers rotated inwards, while those outboard rotated outwards. The outboard turbines operated at high pressure; the exhaust steam then passing to those inboard at relatively low pressure. The propellers were driven directly by the turbines, since sufficiently robust gearboxes had not yet been developed, and only became available in 1916.
Instead, the turbines had to be designed to run at a much lower speed than those normally accepted as being optimum. Thus, the efficiency of the turbines installed was less at low speeds than a conventional reciprocating (piston in cylinder) steam engine, but significantly better when the engines were run at high speed, as was usually the case for an express liner. By 1915 the lifeboat arrangement had been changed to 11 fixed boats either side, plus collapsible boats stored under each lifeboat and on the poop deck. Work to refine the hull shape was conducted in the Admiralty experimental tank at Haslar, Gosport.
The hull immediately in front of the rudder and the balanced rudder itself followed naval design practice to improve the vessel's turning response. Apart from convenience ready for use, the coal was considered to provide added protection for the central spaces against attack.
This allowed a reduction in plate thickness, reducing weight but still providing 26 per cent greater strength than otherwise. Plates were held together by triple rows of rivets. A separate system of exhaust fans removed air from galleys and bathrooms. She was 70 feet (21 m) longer, a full 2 knots (3.7 km/h; 2.3 mph) faster, and had a capacity of 10,000 gross tons over and above that of the most modern German liner, Kronprinzessin Cecilie. Passenger accommodation was 50% larger than any of her competitors, providing for 552 saloon class, 460 cabin class and 1,186 in third class.
Her crew comprised 69 on deck, 369 operating engines and boilers and 389 to attend to passengers. Both she and Mauretania had a wireless telegraph, electric lighting, electric lifts, sumptuous interiors and an early form of air-conditioning. Painting of Lusitania by Norman Wilkinson. At the time of their introduction onto the North Atlantic, both Lusitania and Mauretania possessed among the most luxurious, spacious and comfortable interiors afloat.
The Scottish architect James Miller was chosen to design Lusitania's interiors, while Harold Peto was chosen to design Mauretania. Miller chose to use plasterwork to create interiors whereas Peto made extensive use of wooden panelling, with the result that the overall impression given by Lusitania was brighter than Mauretania.
Lusitania's designs proved the more popular. As seen aboard all passenger liners of the era, first, second and third class passengers were strictly segregated from one another.
According to her original configuration in 1907, she was designed to carry 2,198 passengers and 827 crew members. The Cunard Line prided itself with a record for passenger satisfaction. When fully booked, Lusitania could cater to 552 first class passengers. In common with all major liners of the period, Lusitania's first class interiors were decorated with a mélange of historical styles. The lower floor measuring 85 feet (26 m) could seat 323, with a further 147 on the 65-foot (20 m) upper floor.
The walls were finished with white and gilt carved mahogany panels, with Corinthian decorated columns which were required to support the floor above. The one concession to seaborne life was that furniture was bolted to the floor, meaning passengers could not rearrange their seating for their personal convenience. Promotional material showing the First Class dining room.
Finished First Class dining room. All other first class public rooms were situated on the boat deck and comprised a lounge, reading and writing room, smoking room and veranda café. The last was an innovation on a Cunard liner and, in warm weather, one side of the café could be opened up to give the impression of sitting outdoors. This would have been a rarely used feature given the often inclement weather of the North Atlantic.
The first class lounge was decorated in Georgian style with inlaid mahogany panels surrounding a jade green carpet with a yellow floral pattern, measuring overall 68 feet (21 m). It had a barrel vaulted skylight rising to 20 feet (6.1 m) with stained glass windows each representing one month of the year.Each end of the lounge had a 14-foot (4.3 m) high green marble fireplace incorporating enamelled panels by Alexander Fisher. The design was linked overall with decorative plasterwork. The library walls were decorated with carved pilasters and mouldings marking out panels of grey and cream silk brocade. The carpet was rose, with Rose du Barry silk curtains and upholstery. The chairs and writing desks were mahogany, and the windows featured etched glass.
The smoking room was Queen Anne style, with Italian walnut panelling and Italian red furnishings. The grand stairway linked all six decks of the passenger accommodation with wide hallways on each level and two lifts. First class cabins ranged from one shared room through various ensuite arrangements in a choice of decorative styles culminating in the two regal suites which each had two bedrooms, dining room, parlour and bathroom.
The port suite decoration was modelled on the Petit Trianon. Lusitania's second class accommodation was confined to the stern, behind the aft mast, where quarters for 460 second class passengers were located. The second class public rooms were situated on partitioned sections of boat and promenade decks housed in a separate section of the superstructure aft of the first class passenger quarters. Design work was deputised to Robert Whyte, who was the architect employed by John Brown.Although smaller and plainer, the design of the dining room reflected that of first class, with just one floor of diners under a ceiling with a smaller dome and balcony. Walls were panelled and carved with decorated pillars, all in white.
The smoking and ladies' rooms occupied the accommodation space of the second class promenade deck, with the lounge on the boat deck. Cunard had not previously provided a separate lounge for second class; the 42-foot (13 m) room had mahogany tables, chairs and settees set on a rose carpet. The smoking room was 52 feet (16 m) with mahogany panelling, white plasterwork ceiling and dome. One wall had a mosaic of a river scene in Brittany, while the sliding windows were blue tinted. Second class passengers were allotted shared, yet comfortable two and four berth cabins arranged on the shelter, upper and main decks.
 In the days before Lusitania and even still during the years in which Lusitania was in service, third class accommodation consisted of large open spaces where hundreds of people would share open berths and hastily constructed public spaces, often consisting of no more than a small portion of open deck space and a few tables constructed within their sleeping quarters. In an attempt to break that mould, the Cunard Line began designing ships such as Lusitania with more comfortable third class accommodation. When Lusitania was fully booked in Third Class, the smoking and ladies room could easily be converted into overflow dining rooms for added convenience. Meals were eaten at long tables with swivel chairs and there were two sittings for meals.
A piano was provided for passenger use. What greatly appealed to immigrants and lower class travelers was that instead of being confined to open berth dormitories, aboard Lusitania was a honeycomb of two, four, six and eight berth cabins allotted to Third Class passengers on the main and lower decks. The Bromsgrove Guild had designed and constructed most of the trim on Lusitania. Lusitania's launch, 7 June 1906.Lusitania's keel was laid at John Brown on Clydebank as yard no. 367 on 16 June 1904, Lord Inverclyde hammering home the first rivet. Final details of the two ships were left to designers at the two yards so that the ships differed in details of hull design and finished structure. The ships may most readily be distinguished in photographs through the flat topped ventilators used on Lusitania, whereas those on Mauretania used a more conventional rounded top. Mauretania was designed a little longer, wider, heavier and with an extra power stage fitted to the turbines.
 Construction commenced at the bow working backwards, rather than the traditional approach of building both ends towards the middle. This was because designs for the stern and engine layout were not finalised when construction commenced.
The hull, completed to the level of the main deck but not fitted with equipment weighed approximately 16,000 tons. The steam capstans to raise them were constructed by Napier Brothers Ltd, of Glasgow. The turbines were 25 feet (7.6 m) long with 12 ft (3.7 m) diameter rotors, the large diameter necessary because of the relatively low speeds at which they operated.
The rotors were constructed on site, while the casings and shafting was constructed in John Brown's Atlas works in Sheffield. The machinery to drive the 56 ton rudder was constructed by Brown Brothers of Edinburgh. A main steering engine drove the rudder through worm gear and clutch operating on a toothed quadrant rack, with a reserve engine operating separately on the rack via a chain drive for emergency use. The 17 ft (5.2 m) three bladed propellers were fitted and then cased in wood to protect them during the launch. The launch was attended by 600 invited guests and thousands of spectators.  One thousand tons of drag chains were attached to the hull by temporary rings to slow it once it entered the water.
On launch the propellers were fitted, but on later launches propellers would be fitted in dry dock as they could be damaged by colliding with another object on launch. Six tugs were on hand to capture the hull and move it to the fitting out berth. A preliminary cruise, or Builder's Trial, was arranged for 27 July with representatives of Cunard, the Admiralty, the Board of Trade, and John Brown aboard. On 29 July the guests departed and three days of full trials commenced. Over 300 miles (480 km) an average speed of 25.4 knots was achieved, comfortably greater than the 24 knots required under the admiralty contract.
She achieved a speed of 26 knots over a measured mile loaded to a draught of 33 feet (10 m), and managed 26.5 knots over a 60-mile (97 km) course drawing 31.5 feet (9.6 m). The rudder required 20 seconds to be turned hard to 35 degrees. The vibration was determined to be caused by interference between the wake of the outer propellers and inner and became worse when turning. This required the addition of a number of pillars and arches to the decorative scheme.
Comparison with the Olympic class. The White Star Line's Olympic-class vessels were almost 100 ft (30 m) longer and slightly wider than Lusitania and Mauretania. This made the White Star vessels about 15,000 tons heavier than the Cunard vessels. Both Lusitania and Mauretania were launched and had been in service for several years before Olympic, Titanic and Britannic were ready for the North Atlantic run. Like Olympic, Cunard's Aquitania had a lower service speed, but was a larger and more luxurious vessel.Because of their increased size the Olympic-class liners could offer many more amenities than Lusitania and Mauretania. Both Olympic and Titanic offered swimming pools, Turkish baths, a gymnasium, a squash court, large reception rooms, À la Carte restaurants separate from the dining saloons, and many more staterooms with private bathroom facilities than their two Cunard rivals.
Heavy vibrations as a by-product of the four steam turbines on Lusitania and Mauretania would plague both ships throughout their careers.  In contrast, the Olympic-class liners utilised four traditional reciprocating engines and only one turbine for the central propeller, which greatly reduced vibration. Because of their greater tonnage and wider beam, the Olympic-class liners were also more stable at sea and less prone to rolling.Lusitania and Mauretania both featured straight prows in contrast to the angled prows of the Olympic liners. Designed so that the ships could plunge through a wave rather than crest it, the unforeseen consequence was that the Cunard liners would pitch forward alarmingly, even in calm weather, allowing huge waves to splash the bow and forward part of the superstructure. Olympic arriving at port on maiden voyage June 1911, with Lusitania departing in the background. The vessels of the Olympic class also differed from Lusitania and Mauretania in the way in which they were compartmented below the waterline. The White Star vessels were divided by transverse watertight bulkheads. The British commission that had investigated the sinking of Titanic in 1912 heard testimony on the flooding of coal bunkers lying outside longitudinal bulkheads.  On the other hand, Titanic was given ample stability and sank with only a few degrees list, the design being such that there was very little risk of unequal flooding and possible capsize. Lusitania did not carry enough lifeboats for all her passengers, officers and crew on board at the time of her maiden voyage (carrying four lifeboats fewer than Titanic would carry in 1912). After the Titanic sank, Lusitania and Mauretania were equipped with an additional six clinker-built wooden boats under davits, making for a total of 22 boats rigged in davits. The rest of their lifeboat accommodations were supplemented with 26 collapsible lifeboats, 18 stored directly beneath the regular lifeboats and eight on the after deck.
The collapsibles were built with hollow wooden bottoms and canvas sides, and needed assembly in the event they had to be used. This contrasted with Olympic and Britannic which received a full complement of lifeboats all rigged under davits. Lusitania arriving in New York on her maiden voyage.
Lusitania, commanded by Commodore James Watt, moored at the Liverpool landing stage for her maiden voyage at 4:30 p. On Saturday 7 September 1907 as the onetime Blue Riband holder RMS Lucania vacated the pier.At the time Lusitania was the largest ocean liner in service and would continue to be until the introduction of Mauretania in November that year. During her eight-year service, she made a total of 202 crossings on the Cunard Line's Liverpool-New York Route. A crowd of 200,000 people gathered to see her departure at 9:00 p. For Queenstown (renamed Cobh in 1920), where she was to take on more passengers. She anchored again at Roche's Point, off Queenstown, at 9:20 a. On Sunday Lusitania was again under way and passing the Daunt Rock Lightship. In the first 24 hours she achieved 561 miles (903 km), with further daily totals of 575, 570, 593 and 493 miles (793 km) before arriving at Sandy Hook at 9:05 a. Friday 13 September, taking in total 5 days and 54 minutes, 30 minutes outside the record time held by Kaiser Wilhelm II of the North German Lloyd line. In New York hundreds of thousands of people gathered on the bank of the Hudson River from Battery Park to pier 56. All New York's police had been called out to control the crowd.
From the start of the day, 100 horse drawn cabs had been queuing, ready to take away passengers. 27 September and Liverpool 12 hours later.
The return journey was 5 days 4 hours and 19 minutes, again delayed by fog. On her second voyage in better weather, Lusitania arrived at Sandy Hook on 11 October 1907 in the Blue Riband record time of 4 days, 19 hours and 53 minutes. She had to wait for the tide to enter harbour where news had preceded her and she was met by a fleet of small craft, whistles blaring. Lusitania averaged 23.99 knots (44.43 km/h) westbound and 23.61 knots (43.73 km/h) eastbound.
In December 1907, Mauretania entered service and took the record for the fastest eastbound crossing. Lusitania made her fastest westbound crossing in 1909 after her propellers were changed, averaging 25.85 knots (47.87 km/h). She briefly recovered the record in July of that year, but Mauretania recaptured the Blue Riband the same month, retaining it until 1929, when it was taken by SS Bremen. Lusitania at the end of the first leg of her maiden voyage, New York City, September 1907.The photo was taken with a panoramic camera. Stereo picture of Wright Flyer, Lusitania(Europe-bound), and the Statue of Liberty, during Hudson Fulton Celebration. Lusitania and other ships participated in the Hudson-Fulton Celebration in New York City from the end of September to early October 1909. The celebration also was a display of the different modes of transportation then in existence, Lusitania representing the newest advancement in steamship technology.
A newer mode of travel was the aeroplane. Wilbur Wright had brought a Flyer to Governors Island and proceeded to make demonstration flights before millions of New Yorkers who had never seen an aircraft. Some of Wright's trips were directly over Lusitania; several photographs of Lusitania from that week still exist. Outbreak of the First World War.When Lusitania was built, her construction and operating expenses were subsidised by the British government, with the proviso that she could be converted to an armed merchant cruiser (AMC) if need be. A secret compartment was designed in for the purpose of carrying arms and ammunition.  When war was declared she was requisitioned by the British Admiralty as an armed merchant cruiser, and she was put on the official list of AMCs. Lusitania remained on the official AMC list and was listed as an auxiliary cruiser in the 1914 edition of Jane's All the World's Fighting Ships, along with Mauretania. The Declaration of Paris codified the rules for naval engagements involving civilian vessels.
Also, it had to stop when confronted and allow itself to be boarded and searched, and it was not allowed to be armed or to take any hostile or evasive actions.  When war was declared, British merchant ships were given orders to ram submarines that surfaced to issue the warnings required by the Cruiser Rules. . At the outbreak of hostilities, fears for the safety of Lusitania and other great liners ran high. Germany's declared exclusion zone of February 1915.
Ships within this area were liable to search and attack. Many of the large liners were laid up in 19141915, in part due to falling demand for passenger travel across the Atlantic, and in part to protect them from damage due to mines or other dangers. Among the most recognisable of these liners, some were eventually used as troop transports, while others became hospital ships. Lusitania remained in commercial service; although bookings aboard her were by no means strong during that autumn and winter, demand was strong enough to keep her in civilian service.One of these was the shutting down of her No. 4 boiler room to conserve coal and crew costs; this reduced her maximum speed from over 25 knots (46 km/h; 29 mph) to 21 knots (39 km/h; 24 mph). Her name was picked out in gilt, her funnels were repainted in their traditional Cunard livery, and her superstructure was painted white again.
One alteration was the addition of a bronze/gold coloured band around the base of the superstructure just above the black paint. Captain Daniel Dow, Lusitania's penultimate captain. Captain William Thomas Turner 1915. The official warning issued by the Imperial German Embassy about travelling on Lusitania.By early 1915 a new threat began to materialise: submarines. At first they were used by the Germans only to attack naval vessels, something they achieved only occasionally but sometimes with spectacular success. Then the U-boats began to attack merchant vessels at times, although almost always in accordance with the old Cruiser Rules. Desperate to gain an advantage on the Atlantic, the German government decided to step up their submarine campaign, as a result of the British declaring the North Sea a war zone in November 1914.
On 4 February 1915, Germany declared the seas around the British Isles a war zone: from 18 February Allied ships in the area would be sunk without warning. This was not wholly unrestricted submarine warfare as efforts would be taken to avoid sinking neutral ships. Lusitania was scheduled to arrive in Liverpool on 6 March 1915.
The Admiralty issued her specific instructions on how to avoid submarines. [c] The destroyer commander attempted to discover the whereabouts of Lusitania by telephoning Cunard, who refused to give out any information and referred him to the Admiralty. At sea, the ships contacted Lusitania by radio but did not have the codes used to communicate with merchant ships. Captain Dow of Lusitania refused to give his own position except in code, and since he was, in any case, some distance from the positions they gave, continued to Liverpool unescorted. She was ordered not to fly any flags in the war zone, which was a contravention of the Cruiser Rules.
[e] He was replaced by Captain William Thomas Turner, who had previously commanded Lusitania, Mauretania, and Aquitania in the years before the war. On 17 April 1915, Lusitania left Liverpool on her 201st transatlantic voyage, arriving in New York on 24 April. A group of German-Americans, hoping to avoid controversy if Lusitania was attacked by a U-boat, discussed their concerns with a representative of the German Embassy.
The embassy decided to warn passengers before her next crossing not to sail aboard Lusitania. The Imperial German Embassy placed a warning advertisement in 50 American newspapers, including those in New York. TRAVELLERS intending to embark on the Atlantic voyage are reminded that a state of war exists between Germany and her allies and Great Britain and her allies; that the zone of war includes the waters adjacent to the British Isles; that, in accordance with formal notice given by the Imperial German Government, vessels flying the flag of Great Britain, or any of her allies, are liable to destruction in those waters and that travellers sailing in the war zone on the ships of Great Britain or her allies do so at their own risk. This warning was printed adjacent to an advertisement for Lusitania's return voyage.  Lusitania departed Pier 54 in New York, on 1 May 1915 at 12:20 p.
 A few hours after the vessel's departure, the Saturday evening edition of The Washington Times published two articles on its front page, both referring to those warnings. Main article: Sinking of the RMS Lusitania.
On 7 May 1915 Lusitania was nearing the end of her 202nd crossing, bound for Liverpool from New York, and was scheduled to dock at the Prince's Landing Stage later that afternoon. Aboard her were 1,266 passengers and a crew of 696, which combined totaled to 1,962 people.  She was running parallel to the south coast of Ireland, and was roughly 11 miles off the Old Head of Kinsale when the liner crossed in front of U-20 at 14:10.Due to the liner's great speed, some believe the intersection of the German U-boat and the liner to be coincidence, as U-20 could hardly have caught the fast vessel otherwise. There are discrepancies concerning the speed of Lusitania, as it had been reported travelling not near its full speed. Walther Schwieger, the commanding officer of the U-boat, gave the order to fire one torpedo, which struck Lusitania on the starboard bow, just beneath the wheelhouse.
In all, only six out of 48 lifeboats were launched successfully, with several more overturning and breaking apart. Of the 1,962 passengers and crew aboard Lusitania at the time of the sinking, 1,198 lost their lives. As in the sinking of Titanic, most of the casualties were from drowning or hypothermia. In the hours after the sinking, acts of heroism amongst both the survivors of the sinking and the Irish rescuers who had heard word of Lusitania's distress signals brought the survivor count to 764, three of whom later died from injuries sustained during the sinking.A British cruiser HMS Juno, which had heard of the sinking only a short time after Lusitania was struck, left her anchorage in Cork Harbour to render assistance. By the following morning, news of the disaster had spread around the world. While most of those lost in the sinking were British or Canadians, the loss of 128 Americans in the disaster, including writer and publisher Elbert Hubbard, theatrical producer Charles Frohman, multi-millionaire businessman Alfred Vanderbilt, and the president of Newport News Shipbuilding, Albert L. Hopkins, outraged many in the United States. The sinking caused an international outcry, especially in Britain and across the British Empire, as well as in the United States, since 128 out of 139 U.  On 8 May, Dr Bernhard Dernburg, a German spokesman and a former German Colonial Secretary, published a statement in which he said that because Lusitania "carried contraband of war" and also because she "was classed as an auxiliary cruiser, " Germany had a right to destroy her regardless of any passengers aboard. Dernburg claimed warnings given by the German Embassy before the sailing plus the 18 February note declaring the existence of "war zones" relieved Germany of any responsibility for the deaths of American citizens aboard. He referred to the ammunition and military goods declared on Lusitania's manifest and said that "vessels of that kind" could be seized and destroyed under the Hague rules.  Assistant Manager of the Cunard Line, Herman Winter, denied the charge that she carried munitions, but admitted that she was carrying small-arms ammunition, and that she had been carrying such ammunition for years.  The fact that Lusitania had been carrying shells and cartridges was not made known to the British public at the time. In the 27-page additional manifest, delivered to U.
President Woodrow Wilson refused to immediately declare war.  During the weeks after the sinking, the issue was hotly debated within the U. Government, and correspondence was exchanged between the U.
German Foreign Minister Von Jagow continued to argue that Lusitania was a legitimate military target, as she was listed as an armed merchant cruiser, she was using neutral flags and she had been ordered to ram submarines in blatant contravention of the Cruiser Rules. Von Jagow further argued that Lusitania had on previous voyages carried munitions and Allied troops.  Wilson continued to insist the German government apologise for the sinking, compensate U.Victims, and promise to avoid any similar occurrence in the future.  The British were disappointed with Wilson over his failure to pursue more drastic actions. Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan advised President Wilson that ships carrying contraband should be prohibited from carrying passengers... [I]t would be like putting women and children in front of an army.
 Bryan later resigned because he felt the Wilson administration was being biased in ignoring British contraventions of international law, and that Wilson was leading the U. A German decision on 9 September 1915 stated that attacks were only allowed on ships that were definitely British, while neutral ships were to be treated under the Prize Law rules, and no attacks on passenger liners were to be permitted at all. A fabricated story was circulated that in some regions of Germany, schoolchildren were given a holiday to celebrate the sinking of Lusitania. This claim was so effective that James W. Ambassador to Germany, recounted it in his memoir of his time in Germany, Face to Face with Kaiserism (1918), though without substantiating its validity. Almost two years later, in January 1917 the German Government announced it would again conduct full unrestricted submarine warfare. This together with the Zimmermann Telegram pushed U. Public opinion over the tipping point, and on 6 April 1917 the United States Congress followed President Wilson's request to declare war on Germany. In 2014 a release of papers revealed that in 1982 the British government warned divers of the presence of explosives on board.
The facts are that there is a large amount of ammunition in the wreck, some of which is highly dangerous. The Treasury have decided that they must inform the salvage company of this fact in the interests of the safety of all concerned. 7 May 2015 was the 100th anniversary of the sinking of Lusitania. To commemorate the occasion, Cunard's MS Queen Victoria undertook a voyage to Cork, Ireland. On 3 May, a flotilla set sail from the Isle of Man to mark the anniversary.
Two of the bravery medals awarded to the crew members are held at the Leece Museum in Peel. There are a number of conspiracy theories relating to the last days of Lusitania.
British Government deliberately putting Lusitania at risk. There has long been a theory, expressed by historian and former British naval intelligence officer Patrick Beesly and authors Colin Simpson and Donald E. Schmidt among others, that Lusitania was deliberately placed in danger by the British authorities, so as to entice a U-boat attack and thereby drag the US into the war on the side of Britain. Such a conspiracy could not have been put into effect without Winston Churchill's express permission and approval.At the post-sinking inquiry Captain Turner refused to answer certain questions on the grounds of war-time secrecy imperatives. The British government continues to keep secret certain documents relating to the final days of the voyage, including certain of the signals passed between the Admiralty and Lusitania. The records that are available are often missing critical pages, and lingering questions include the following: . Did they also fail to provide a destroyer escort, although destroyers were available in a nearby port? Lusitania was officially carrying among her cargo 750 tons of rifle/machine-gun ammunition, 1250 cases of shrapnel artillery shells with the explosive burster charges loaded but no fuses or propellant charges, and the artillery fuses for those shells stored separately.
 Author Steven Danver states that Lusitania was also secretly carrying a large quantity of nitrocellulose (gun cotton), although this was not listed on the cargo manifest either.  In September 2008, bullets of a type known to be used by the British military were recovered from the wreck by diver Eoin McGarry. Alleged bombardment/destruction of the wreck.
It has been alleged that the wreck was bombed by the Royal Navy. A Dublin-based technical diver, Des Quigley, who dived on the wreck in the 1990s, reported that the wreck is "like Swiss cheese" and the seabed around her "is littered with unexploded hedgehog mines". In February 2009, the Discovery Channel television series Treasure Quest aired an episode titled "Lusitania Revealed", in which Gregg Bemis, a retired venture capitalist who owns the rights to the wreck, and a team of shipwreck experts explore the wreck via a remote control unmanned submersible. At one point in the documentary an unexploded depth charge was found in the wreckage.Professor William Kingston of Trinity College, Dublin claimed that "There's no doubt at all about it that the Royal Navy and the British government have taken very considerable steps over the years to try to prevent whatever can be found out about the Lusitania". The wreck of Lusitania lies on its starboard side at an approximately 30-degree angle in roughly 300 feet (91 m) of water, 11 miles (18 km) south of the lighthouse at Kinsale.
The wreck is badly collapsed onto her starboard side, due to the force with which she struck the bottom coupled with the forces of winter tides and corrosion in the decades since the sinking. The keel has an "unusual curvature" which may be related to a lack of strength from the loss of its superstructure.
The beam is reduced with the funnels missing presumably to deterioration. The bow is the most prominent portion of the wreck with the stern damaged by depth charges.
Three of the four propellers were removed by Oceaneering International in 1982. When contrasted with her contemporary, Titanic resting at a depth of 12,000 feet (3,700 m), Lusitania appears in a much more deteriorated state due to the presence of fishing nets lying on the wreckage, the blasting of the wreck with depth charges and multiple salvage operations. As a result, the wreck is unstable and may at some point completely collapse. Simon Lake's attempt to salvage in the 1930s. Between 1931 and 1935 an American syndicate comprising Simon Lake, one of the chief inventors of the modern submarine, and a US Navy officer, Captain H.
Railey, negotiated a contract with the British Admiralty and other British authorities to partially salvage Lusitania.  The means of salvage was unique in that a 200-foot (61 m) steel tube, five feet in diameter, which enclosed stairs, and a dive chamber at the bottom would be floated out over the Lusitania wreck and then sunk upright, with the dive chamber resting on the main deck of Lusitania. Divers would then take the stairs down to the dive chamber and then go out of the chamber to the deck of Lusitania.Lake's primary business goals were to salvage the purser's safe and any items of historical value.  It was not to be though, and in Simon Lake's own words, ... But my hands were too fulli. Lake's company was having financial difficulties at the timeand the contract with British authorities expired 31 December 1935 without any salvage work being done, even though his unique salvage tunnel had been built and tested. Gregg Bemis became a co-owner of the wreck in 1968, and by 1982 had bought out his partners to become sole owner.
He subsequently went to court in Britain in 1986, the US in 1995 and Ireland in 1996 to ensure that his ownership was legally in force. None of the jurisdictions involved objected to his ownership of the vessel but in 1995 the Irish Government declared it a heritage site under the National Monuments Act, which prohibited him from in any way interfering with her or her contents.After a protracted legal wrangle, the Supreme Court in Dublin overturned the Arts and Heritage Ministry's previous refusal to issue Bemis with a five-year exploration license in 2007, ruling that the then minister for Arts and Heritage had misconstrued the law when he refused Bemis's 2001 application. He said that any items found would be given to museums following analysis. Any fine art recovered, such as the paintings by Rubens, Rembrandt and Monet among other artists believed to have been in the possession of Sir Hugh Lane, who was believed to be carrying them in lead tubes, would remain in the ownership of the Irish Government. In late July 2008 Gregg Bemis was granted an "imaging" licence by the Department of the Environment, which allowed him to photograph and film the entire wreck, and was to allow him to produce the first high-resolution pictures of her. Florida-based Odyssey Marine Exploration (OME) were contracted by Bemis to conduct the survey. The Department of the Environment's Underwater Archaeology Unit was to join the survey team to ensure that research would be carried out in a non-invasive manner, and a film crew from the Discovery Channel was also to be on hand.
A dive team from Cork Sub Aqua Club, diving under licence, discovered 15,000 rounds of the. The find was photographed but left in situ under the terms of the licence.  In December 2008, Gregg Bemis's dive team estimated a further four million rounds of. Bemis announced plans to commission further dives in 2009 for a full-scale forensic examination of the wreck. The joint American-German TV production, Sinking of the Lusitania: Terror at Sea premiered on the Discovery Channel on 13 May 2007, and on BBC One in the UK on 27 May 2007.In 1982 various items were recovered from the wreck and brought ashore in the United Kingdom from the cargo of Lusitania. Complex litigation ensued, with all parties settling their differences apart from the salvors and the British Government, who asserted "droits of admiralty" over the recovered items. The judge eventually ruled in The Lusitania,  QB 384,  1 All ER 1011, that the Crown has no rights over wrecks outside British territorial waters, even if the recovered items are subsequently brought into the United Kingdom. [h] The case remains the leading authority on this point of law today.
Many works of art, media and entertainment were inspired by the sinking of the vessel. These are discussed in Sinking of the RMS Lusitania.
List by death toll of ships sunk by submarines. The Carpet from Bagdad (1915), a film, of which a reel was recovered from the wreck in 1982. Patrick Beesly, an author and historian. Cunard Line is a British-American cruise line based at Carnival House at Southampton, England, operated by Carnival UK and owned by Carnival Corporation & plc.  Since 2011, Cunard and its three ships have been registered in Hamilton, Bermuda.
For most of the next 30 years, Cunard held the Blue Riband for the fastest Atlantic voyage. However, in the 1870s Cunard fell behind its rivals, the White Star Line and the Inman Line. To meet this competition, in 1879 the firm was reorganised as the Cunard Steamship Company, Ltd, to raise capital. In 1902 White Star joined the American-owned International Mercantile Marine Co.
And the British Government provided Cunard with substantial loans and a subsidy to build two superliners needed to retain its competitive position. Mauretania held the Blue Riband from 1909 to 1929. The sinking of her running mate Lusitania in 1915 was one of the causes of the United States' entering the First World War.
In the late 1920s, Cunard faced new competition when the Germans, Italians and French built large prestige liners. Cunard was forced to suspend construction on its own new superliner because of the Great Depression.
Cunard owned two-thirds of the new company. Upon the end of the Second World War, Cunard regained its position as the largest Atlantic passenger line.
By the mid-1950s, it operated 12 ships to the United States and Canada. After 1958, transatlantic passenger ships became increasingly unprofitable because of the introduction of jet airliners. Cunard withdrew from its year-round service in 1968 to concentrate on cruising and summer transatlantic voyages for vacationers. The Queens were replaced by Queen Elizabeth 2 (QE2), which was designed for the dual role.In 1998 Cunard was acquired by the Carnival Corporation, and accounted for 8.7% of that company's revenue in 2012.  In 2003, QE2 was replaced on the transatlantic runs by Queen Mary 2 (QM2).
The line also operates Queen Victoria (QV) and Queen Elizabeth (QE). Britannia of 1840 (1150 GRT), the first Cunard liner built for the transatlantic service. These ships carried few non-governmental passengers and no cargo. In 1818, the Black Ball Line opened a regularly scheduled New YorkLiverpool service with clipper ships, beginning an era when American sailing packets dominated the North Atlantic saloon-passenger trade that lasted until the introduction of steamships. The Admiralty assumed responsibility for managing the contracts.
 The famed Arctic explorer Admiral Sir William Edward Parry was appointed as Comptroller of Steam Machinery and Packet Service in April 1837.  Nova Scotians led by their young Assembly Speaker, Joseph Howe, lobbied for steam service to Halifax. On his arrival in London in May 1838, Howe discussed the enterprise with his fellow Nova Scotian Samuel Cunard (17871865), a shipowner who was also visiting London on business. The Rebellions of 1837 were ongoing and London realized that the proposed Halifax service was also important for the military. While British American, the other pioneer transatlantic steamship company, did not submit a tender,  the St. Cunard, who was back in Halifax, unfortunately did not know of the tender until after the deadline. Cunard offered Parry a fortnightly service beginning in May 1840. While Cunard did not then own a steamship, he had been an investor in an earlier steamship venture, Royal William, and owned coal mines in Nova Scotia.  Cunard's major backer was Robert Napier whose Robert Napier and Sons was the Royal Navy's supplier of steam engines.  He also had the strong backing of Nova Scotian political leaders at the time when London needed to rebuild support in British North America after the rebellion. Europa of 1848 (1850 GRT). This is one of the earliest known photos of an Atlantic steamship.  Parliament investigated Great Western's complaints, and upheld the Admiralty's decision.  Napier and Cunard recruited other investors including businessmen James Donaldson, Sir George Burns, and David MacIver. When MacIver died in 1845, his younger brother Charles assumed his responsibilities for the next 35 years.
 For more detail of the first investors in the Cunard Line and also the early life of Charles Maciver, see Liverpool Nautical Research Society's Second Merseyside Maritime History, pp. In May 1840 the coastal paddle steamer Unicorn made the company's first voyage to Halifax to begin the supplementary service to Montreal. Two months later the first of the four ocean-going steamers of the Britannia Class, departed Liverpool.By coincidence, the steamers departure had patriotic significance on both sides of the Atlantic: she was named the Britannia, and sailed on 4 July.  Even on her maiden voyage, however, her performance indicated that the new era she heralded would be much more beneficial for Britain than the US. Such relatively brisk crossings quickly became the norm for the Cunard Line: during 184041, mean LiverpoolHalifax times for the quartet were 13 days 6 hours to Halifax and 11 days 4 hours homeward. Two larger ships were quickly ordered, one to replace the Columbia, which sank at Seal Island, Nova Scotia, in 1843 without loss of life. By 1845, steamship lines led by Cunard carried more saloon passengers than the sailing packets.  Four additional wooden paddlers were ordered and alternate sailings were direct to New York instead of the HalifaxBoston route. The sailing packet lines were now reduced to the immigrant trade.
From the beginning Cunard's ships used the line's distinctive red funnel with two or three narrow black bands and black top. It appears that Robert Napier was responsible for this feature.
His shipyard in Glasgow used this combination previously in 1830 on Thomas Assheton Smith's private steam yacht "Menai". The renovation of her model by Glasgow Museum of Transport revealed that she had vermilion funnels with black bands and black top.
Cunard's reputation for safety was one of the significant factors in the firm's early success.  Both of the first transatlantic lines failed after major accidents: the British and American line collapsed after the President foundered in a gale, and the Great Western Steamship Company failed after Great Britain stranded because of a navigation error.  In particular, Charles MacIver's constant inspections were responsible for the firm's safety discipline. Cunard Line, from New York to Liverpool, from 1875. In 1850 the American Collins Line and the British Inman Line started new Atlantic steamship services.The American Government supplied Collins with a large annual subsidy to operate four wooden paddlers that were superior to Cunard's best,  as they demonstrated with three Blue Riband-winning voyages between 1850 and 1854.  Meanwhile, Inman showed that iron-hulled, screw propelled steamers of modest speed could be profitable without subsidy. Inman also became the first steamship line to carry steerage passengers. Both of the newcomers suffered major disasters in 1854.  The next year, Cunard put pressure on Collins by commissioning its first iron-hulled paddler, Persia. That pressure may well have been a factor in a second major disaster suffered by the Collins Line, the loss of its steamer Pacific.  A few months later the Persia inflicted a further blow to the Collins Line, regaining the Blue Riband with a LiverpoolNew York voyage of 9 days 16 hours, averaging 13.11 knots (24.28 km/h). Persia of 1856 (3,300 GRT).
During the Crimean War Cunard supplied 11 ships for war service. Every British North Atlantic route was suspended until 1856 except Cunard's LiverpoolHalifaxBoston service.  Cunard emerged as the leading carrier of saloon passengers and in 1862 commissioned Scotia, the last paddle steamer to win the Blue Riband.
Inman carried more passengers because of its success in the immigrant trade. To compete, in May 1863 Cunard started a secondary LiverpoolNew York service with iron-hulled screw steamers that catered for steerage passengers. When Cunard died in 1865, the equally conservative Charles MacIver assumed Cunard's role.  The firm retained its reluctance about change and was overtaken by competitors that more quickly adopted new technology.
 In 1866 Inman started to build screw propelled express liners that matched Cunard's premier unit, the Scotia. Cunard responded with its first high speed screw propellered steamer, Russia which was followed by two larger editions. In 1871 both companies faced a new rival when the White Star Line commissioned the Oceanic and her five sisters. The new White Star record-breakers were especially economical because of their use of compound engines. White Star also set new standards for comfort by placing the dining saloon midships and doubling the size of cabins.
Inman rebuilt its express fleet to the new standard, but Cunard lagged behind both of its rivals. Throughout the 1870s Cunard passage times were longer than either White Star or Inman. Cunard Line offices in New York City.
The fortnightly route to Halifax formerly held by Cunard went to Inman. The new contracts were paid on the basis of weight, at a rate substantially higher than paid by the United States Post Office. Cunard Steamship Company Ltd: 18791934. A captain waves aboard a Cunard Line vessel in this picture taken in 1901.  Under Cunard's new chairman, John Burns (18391900), son of one of the firm's original founders,  Cunard commissioned four steel-hulled express liners beginning with Servia of 1881, the first passenger liner with electric lighting throughout.
That year, Cunard also commissioned the record-breakers Umbria and Etruria capable of 19.5 knots (36.1 km/h). Starting in 1887, Cunard's newly won leadership on the North Atlantic was threatened when Inman and then White Star responded with twin screw record-breakers. In 1893 Cunard countered with two even faster Blue Riband winners, Campania and Lucania, capable of 21.8 knots (40.4 km/h).
Etruria of 1885 (7,700 GRT). Campania of 1893, (12,900 GRT). No sooner had Cunard re-established its supremacy than new rivals emerged.
 In 1897 Kaiser Wilhelm der Große of Norddeutscher Lloyd raised the Blue Riband to 22.3 knots (41.3 km/h), and was followed by a succession of German record-breakers.  Rather than match the new German speedsters, White Star a rival which Cunard line would merge with commissioned four very profitable Celtic-class liners of more moderate speed for its secondary LiverpoolNew York service. In 1902 White Star joined the well-capitalized American combine, the International Mercantile Marine Co. (IMM), which owned the American Line, including the old Inman Line, and other lines. IMM also had trade agreements with HamburgAmerica and Norddeutscher Lloyd.British prestige was at stake. In 1903 the firm started a FiumeNew York service with calls at Italian ports and Gibraltar. The next year Cunard commissioned two ships to compete directly with the Celtic-class liners on the secondary LiverpoolNew York route. In 1911 Cunard entered the St Lawrence trade by purchasing the Thompson line, and absorbed the Royal line five years later. RMS Carpathia of 1901 (13,555 GRT) became famous for rescuing the survivors of the sinking of the RMS Titanic. Not to be outdone, both White Star and HamburgAmerica each ordered a trio of superliners. The White Star Olympic-class liners at 21.5 knots (39.8 km/h) and the Hapag Imperator-class liners at 22.5 knots (41.7 km/h) were larger and more luxurious than the Cunarders, but not as fast. Events prevented the expected competition between the three sets of superliners. White Star's Titanic sank on its maiden voyage, both White Star's Britannic and Cunard's Lusitania were war losses, and the three Hapag super-liners were handed over to the Allied powers as war reparations. In 1916 Cunard Line completed its European headquarters in Liverpool, moving in on 12 June of that year.  The grand neo-Classical Cunard Building was the third of Liverpool's Three Graces. The headquarters were used by Cunard until the 1960s.
Aquitania of 1914 (45,650 GRT) served in both World Wars. Due to First World War losses, Cunard began a post-war rebuilding programme including eleven intermediate liners.  The German Bremen took the Blue Riband at 27.8 knots (51.5 km/h) in 1933, the Italian Rex recorded 28.9 knots (53.5 km/h) on a westbound voyage the same year, and the French Normandie crossed the Atlantic in just under four days at 30.58 knots (56.63 km/h) in 1937. Work on hull 534 was halted in 1931 because of the economic conditions. Cunard-White Star Ltd: 19341949.
Queen Mary of 1936 (80,700 GRT) in New York c. Main article: Cunard-White Star Line. In 1934, both the Cunard Line and the White Star Line were experiencing financial difficulties. The merger took place on 10 May 1934, creating Cunard-White Star Limited.
The merger was accomplished with Cunard owning about two-thirds of the capital.  Due to the surplus tonnage of the new combined Cunard White Star fleet many of the older liners were sent to the scrapyard; these included the ex-Cunard liner Mauretania and the ex-White Star liners Olympic and Homeric.  Queen Mary reached 30.99 knots (57.39 km/h) on her 1938 Blue Riband voyage. Queen Elizabeth of 1939 (83,650 GRT). During the 193945 Second World War the Queens carried over two million servicemen and were credited by Churchill as helping to shorten the war by a year.
 All four of the large Cunard-White Star express liners, the two Queens, Aquitania and Mauretania survived, but many of the secondary ships were lost. Both Lancastria and Laconia were sunk with heavy loss of life.  Also in 1947 the company commissioned five freighters and two cargo liners.
Caronia, was completed in 1949 as a permanent cruise liner and Aquitania was retired the next year.  Cunard was in an especially good position to take advantage of the increase in North Atlantic travel during the 1950s and the Queens were a major generator of US currency for Great Britain.Cunard's slogan, "Getting there is half the fun", was specifically aimed at the tourist trade. In 1960 a government-appointed committee recommended the construction of project Q3, a conventional 75,000 GRT liner to replace Queen Mary. Under the plan, the government would lend Cunard the majority of the liner's cost.
 However, some Cunard stockholders questioned the plan at the June 1961 board meeting because transatlantic flights were gaining in popularity. Within ten years of the introduction of jet airliners in 1958, most of the conventional Atlantic liners were gone. Mauretania was retired in 1965, the Queen Mary and Caronia in 1967, and the Queen Elizabeth in 1968. Cunard tried operating scheduled air services to North America, the Caribbean and South America by forming BOAC-Cunard Ltd in 1962 with the British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC), but this venture lasted only until 1966.  All Cunard ships flew the Cunard flag over the White Star flag until late 1968. This was most likely because White Star Line's Nomadic remained in service with Cunard until November 4, 1968, and was sent to the breakers' yard, only to be bought for use as a floating restaurant.
After this, all remnants of both White Star Line and Cunard-White Star Line were retired. Trafalgar House years: 19711998. Queen Elizabeth 2 of 1969 (70,300 GRT) at Trondheim, Norway, in 2008. Its cargo fleet consisted of 42 ships in service, with 20 on order.
The flagship of the passenger fleet was the two-year-old Queen Elizabeth 2. The fleet also included the remaining two intermediate liners from the 1950s, plus two purpose-built cruise ships on order. Trafalgar acquired two additional cruise ships and disposed of the intermediate liners and most of the cargo fleet. Cunard acquired the Norwegian America Line in 1983, with two classic ocean liner/cruise ships.
P&O objected and forced the issue to the British Monopolies and Mergers Commission. In their filing, P&O was critical of Trafalgar's management of Cunard and their failure to correct QE2's mechanical problems.  In 1984, the Commission ruled in favour of the merger, but Trafalgar decided against proceeding.  In 1988, Cunard acquired Ellerman Lines and its small fleet of cargo vessels, organising the business as Cunard-Ellerman, however, only a few years later, Cunard decided to abandon the cargo business and focus solely on cruise ships.
In 1993, Cunard entered into a 10-year agreement to handle marketing, sales and reservations for the Crown Cruise Line, and its three vessels joined the Cunard fleet under the Cunard Crown banner. The rest of Royal Viking Line's fleet stayed with the line's owner, Norwegian Cruise Line. By the mid-1990s Cunard was ailing. The company was embarrassed in late 1994 when the QE2 experienced numerous defects during the first voyage of the season because of unfinished renovation work.
In 1996 the Norwegian conglomerate Kværner acquired Trafalgar House, and attempted to sell Cunard. When there were no takers, Kværner made substantial investments to turn around the company's tarnished reputation. Queen Mary 2 of 2004 (148,528 GT). Queen Victoria of 2007 (90,049 GT). Queen Elizabeth of 2010 (90,901 GT).
 Each of Carnival's cruise lines is designed to appeal to a different market, and Carnival was interested in rebuilding Cunard as a luxury brand trading on its British traditions. Under the slogan "Advancing Civilization Since 1840, " Cunard's advertising campaign sought to emphasise the elegance and mystique of ocean travel. By 2001 Carnival was the largest cruise company, followed by Royal Caribbean and P&O Princess Cruises, which had recently separated from its parent, P&O.  European and US regulators approved the merger without requiring Cunard's sale.  After the merger was completed, Carnival moved Cunard's headquarters to the offices of Princess Cruises in Santa Clarita, California, so that administrative, financial and technology services could be combined.
Carnival House opened in Southampton in 2009,  and executive control of Cunard Line transferred from Carnival Corporation in the United States, to Carnival UK, the primary operating company of Carnival plc. As the UK-listed holding company of the group, Carnival plc had executive control of all Carnival Group activities in the UK, with the headquarters of all UK-based brands, including Cunard, in offices at Carnival House. In 2004 the 36-year-old QE2 was replaced on the North Atlantic by Queen Mary 2. To reinforce Cunard traditions, the QV has a small museum on board. In 2010 Cunard appointed its first female commander, Captain Inger Klein Olsen.
In 2011 all three Cunard ships in service changed vessel registry to Hamilton, Bermuda,  the first time in the 171-year history of the company that it had no ships registered in the United Kingdom.  The captains of ships registered in Bermuda, but not in the UK, can marry couples at sea; weddings at sea are a lucrative market.
On 25 May 2015, the three Cunard ocean liners Queen Mary 2, Queen Elizabeth and Queen Victoria sailed up the Mersey into Liverpool to commemorate the 175th anniversary of Cunard. The ships performed manoeuvres, including 180-degree turns, as the Red Arrows performed a fly-past. On 25 September 2017, Cunard announced a new addition to the fleet, expected to arrive in 2022. The Cunard fleet, all built for Cunard unless otherwise indicated, consisted of the following ships in order of acquisition:.All ships of this period had wooden hulls and paddle wheels. Blue Riband, wrecked 1843 without loss of life. Only Arabia had a wooden hull and only Arabia, Persia and Scotia had paddle wheels. Blue Riband, taken out of service 1868 and scrapped 1872.
Lengthened and re-engined in 1873, scrapped 1896. Wrecked on Tuskar Rock, Wexford 1872.
Resold and renamed Philadelphia, sank after a collision 1902. Traded in for Oregon 1884, scrapped 1924.
Traded in for Oregon 1884, scrapped 1956. First steel liner to New York, scrapped 1902. Blue Riband, last Cunarders to carry sails, scrapped 1910. Blue Riband, scrapped after fire 1909.
Rescued survivors from Titanic, later sunk by U-55 1918. Chartered by Anchor Line 1914 for 4 trips, scrapped 1922. Blue Riband, sunk by U-20 1915. Served in both world wars, longest serving liner until QE2 in 2004, scrapped 1950. Served on the Liverpool to New York route.
Chartered from Lamport & Holt Line, scrapped 1932. Built as Tyrrhenia, sunk by bombing 1940. Transferred to Anchor Donaldson, sunk by U-30 1939. See also: White Star Line's Olympic, Homeric, Majestic, Doric, Laurentic, Britannic and Georgic.
Built for White Star Line, scrapped 1960. Built for White Star Line, scrapped 1956. Ex Castilian chartered from Ellerman Lines. Sunk in Falklands War 1982. Clausen and converted to a sheep carrier.
Transferred from Holland America Line. Transferred to Atlantic Container Line. Built for Sea Goddess Cruises, transferred to Seabourn Cruise Line 1998. Built for Crown Cruise Line, transferred to Crown Cruise Line 1994.
Built for Crown Cruise Line, transferred to Star Cruises 1995. Built for Crown Cruise Line, transferred to Majesty Cruise Line 1997. Built for Royal Viking Line, transferred to Seabourn Cruise Line 1999. To be built by Fincantieri S.
After Trafalgar House bought them in 1971, Cunard operated the former company's existing hotels as Cunard-Trafalgar Hotels. In the 1980s, the chain was restyled as Cunard Hotels & Resorts, before folding in 1995.
Today London Marriott Hotel Kensington. Hotel Bristol, later Cunard Hotel Bristol.Today Holiday Inn London Mayfair. Cunard Paradise Beach Hotel & Club. Cunard Hotel La Toc & La Toc Suites. Today Sandals Regency La Toc. Today Novotel London West Hotel. The item "RARE Postcard RMS Lusitania Hugo Lang's Giant Card Real Photo RPPC ca 1907" is in sale since Sunday, February 11, 2018. This item is in the category "Collectibles\Postcards\Transportation\Boats, Ships". The seller is "dalebooks" and is located in Rochester, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.